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FCPA Blog Daily News

Entries in Ramendra Basu (5)

Tuesday
May112010

The Hard Timers

Compliance officers will want to keep a copy of the table below close at hand. What better way to answer those who insist that the FCPA is small potatoes, after all, when you look at the relatively few enforcement actions over the past 33 years.

Here are the 22 men (no women so far), most of them former company executives, who've spent time in prison for FCPA-related convictions. Each name that follows represents a terrible tragedy, often with permanent damage extending to families. As the compiler of the list said: "By my count there have been 187 people charged with violating the FCPA. This list will look a little different at the end of the year."

We'd like to thank the generous individual responsible for this post, but that's not possible. He or she has asked to remain anonymous, making this contribution pro bono publico.

The information is compiled from the Federal Bureau of Prisons' inmate locator. Readers with suggestions and corrections are welcome to let us know.

 

Name

Related Company

Register #

Age Race Sex

Release Date

Location

FERNANDO MAYA BASURTO

ABB Ltd

39135-177

48-White-M

UNKNOWN

HOUSTON FDC

CHARLES PAUL EDWARD JUMET

Ports Engineering Consultants Corporation

75638-083

53-White-M

UNKNOWN

NOT IN BOP CUSTODY

SULEIMAN A NASSAR

Lockheed

45723-019

73-White-M

11/19/1996

RELEASED

DAVID H MEAD

Saybolt

79529-079

72-White-M

7/21/1999

RELEASED

HERBERT STEINDLER

General Electric

02423-061

71-White-M

3/13/2000

RELEASED

HERBERT LAWRENCE TANNENBAUM

Tanner Management Corp

82537-054

85-White-M

4/20/2000

RELEASED

RICHARD G PITCHFORD

Central Asia American Enterprise Fund

26036-016

75-White-M

12/4/2003

RELEASED

ROBERT RICHARD KING

Owl Securities and Investments

14447-045

76-White-M

6/30/2006

RELEASED

STEVEN LYNWOOD HEAD

Titan

95321-198

63-White-M

9/29/2008

RELEASED

YAW OSEI AMOAKO

ITXC Corporation

60267-050

58-Black-M

12/17/2008

RELEASED

PAUL GRAYSON NOVAK

Willbros

43505-279

43-White-M

12/19/2008

RELEASED

ROGER MICHAEL YOUNG

ITXC Corporation

29574-016

49-White-M

4/10/2009

RELEASED

STEVEN JOSEPH OTT

ITXC Corporation

60540-050

50-White-M

6/17/2009

RELEASED

RAMENDRA BASU

World Bank

29254-016

47-White-M

8/7/2009

RELEASED

FAHEEM MOUSA SALAM

 

28567-016

32-White-M

1/7/2010

RELEASED

MISAO HIOKI

Bridgestone

90290-111

56-Asian-M

11/23/2010

LOMPOC USP

DAVID KAY

American Rice

13749-179

58-White-M

1/27/2011

TEXARKANA FCI

JIM BOB BROWN

Willbros

66158-179

48-White-M

1/29/2011

ATLANTA USP

CHRISTIAN SAPSIZIAN

Alcatel SA

78172-004

63-White-M

3/18/2011

NE OHIO CORR CTR CI

JASON EDWARD STEPH

Willbros

36444-177

40-White-M

3/28/2011

EL RENO FCI

DOUGLAS MURPHY

American Rice

13987-179

53-White-M

12/31/2012

EL RENO FCI

SHU QUAN-SHENG

AMAC International

58250-083

69-Asian-M

2/18/2013

LA TUNA FCI

 

Thursday
Jan282010

Prison For Ex-Willbros Execs

FCPA violations: The Justice Department is targeting individuals who pay bribes to foreign officials. Photo by Ken MayerTwo former Willbros managers on Thursday were given jail time for conspiracy to violate the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act. They bribed foreign government officials and employees of state-owned firms to win pipeline work and gain other advantages.

Jim Bob Brown, 48, was sentenced in federal court in Houston to one year and one day in prison and fined $17,500; Jason Edward Steph, 40, was sentenced to 15 months and fined $2,000.

Steph, who once served as general manager of on-shore operations for Willbros International, pleaded guilty in November 2007. He said in his plea that in 2005 he, Brown, and others arranged to pay about $1.8 million in cash to Nigerian officials.

Brown pleaded guilty in September 2006 to conspiracy to violate the FCPA. He and Steph cooperated with the government’s investigation.

Brown said from 1996 to 2004, he and others plotted to negotiate lower Nigerian federal and state taxes in exchange for bribes to revenue officials. And he admitted conspiring to make corrupt payments to officials in the Nigerian court system in exchange for favorable treatment on pending cases. Brown also paid at least $300,000 in bribes to Ecuadorian government officials from PetroEcuador and PetroCommercial in exchange for contracts. The DOJ said all the payments violated the FCPA's antibribery provisions.

In May 2008, Willbros Group and its subsidiary Willbros International paid $22 million and entered into a deferred prosecution agreement with the DOJ to settle criminal FCPA charges in connection with corrupt payments to Nigerian and Ecuadorian officials. Willbros Group also paid $10.3 million (disgorgement of $8.9 million, plus prejudgment interest of $1.4 million) to resolve the SEC's civil enforcement action.

In December 2008, another former executive and an ex-consultant of Willbros International Inc. were charged in the case. Consultant Paul G. Novak, 43, pleaded guilty in November 2009 to conspiracy to violate the FCPA. He's scheduled to be sentenced on February 19. James K. Tillery, 49, a former Willbros International executive, was also charged but remains at large.

In May 2008, the Securities and Exchange Commission charged Steph and former employees Gerald Jansen, Lloyd Biggers, and Carlos Galvez with aiding and abetting Willbros Group's violation of the antibribery, books and records, and internal controls provisions of the FCPA, and knowingly circumventing the FCPA's internal controls and books and records provisions. All four consented to permanent injunctions, with Jansen and Galvez ordered to pay civil penalties of $30,000 and $35,000 respectively. Determination of Steph's civil penalty was deferred pending his sentencing in the criminal case.

*   *   *

Substantive FCPA violations and conspiracy to violate the FCPA both carry a maximum sentence of five years in prison. Here are some recent FCPA-related sentences:

  • In November last year, Frederic Bourke, who was convicted at trial, was sentenced to a year and day in jail for conspiracy.
  • David Kay and Douglas Murphy started serving their sentences last year for substantive FCPA violations. They were convicted at trial and sentenced to 37 months and 63 months respectively.
  • In April 2009, Virginia-based physicist Shu Quan-Sheng was sentenced to 51 months in prison. He pleaded guilty in November 2008 to one count of violating the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act and two counts of violating the Arms Export Control Act.
  • In September 2008, two former executives from telecoms company ITXC Corporation avoided prison. Roger Michael Young was sentenced to five years probation with three months home confinement after he pleaded guilty in July 2007 to violating the FCPA and the Travel Act. Steven J. Ott also pleaded guilty and was sentenced to five years probation with six months in a community confinement center and six months home confinement.
  • Also in September 2008, Albert "Jack" Stanley, KBR's former CEO, pleaded guilty to a two-count criminal information charging him with conspiracy to violate the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act and conspiracy to commit mail and wire fraud. He agreed to a seven year jail term with a chance for reduction based on his cooperation. 
  • In  April 2008, a former World Bank employee, Ramendra Basu, received 15 months in prison for conspiring to award World Bank contracts to consultants in exchange for kickbacks and for helping a contractor bribe a foreign official. He pleaded guilty to conspiring to commit wire fraud and to violating the FCPA.

A copy of the DOJ's January 28, 2010 release is here.

See our prior posts about Willbros and its personnel here.

Wednesday
Sep172008

What's The Tally?

The Justice Department says it plans to prosecute more individuals under the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act -- and send them to jail. We looked through our posts to see how men and women fared over the past year. Below are excerpts from posts dealing with those who've been criminally charged or sentenced under the FCPA, or settled enforcement actions with the SEC, or both, during the past twelve months. The titles link to the original posts.

More Individuals Indicted For FCPA Violations (September 8, 2008)

The Justice Department said it arrested four people last week on charges that they and their company bribed Vietnamese officials in exchange for contracts to supply equipment and technology to government agencies in Vietnam.

The DOJ said U.S. citizens Nam Nguyen, 52, of Houston; Joseph Lukas, 59, of Smithville, N.J.; Kim Nguyen, 39, of Philadelphia; and An Nguyen, 32, of Philadelphia were arrested after they, along with Nexus Technologies Inc., were indicted on Sept. 4, 2008, by a federal grand jury in Philadelphia on one count of conspiracy to violate the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act and four substantive counts of violating the FCPA.

# # #


Ex-KBR Boss Pleads Guilty (September 4, 2008)

The Justice Department said today that Albert “Jack” Stanley, 65, a former chairman and CEO of KBR, the global engineering and construction firm based in Houston, pleaded guilty to a two-count criminal information charging him with conspiracy to violate the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act and conspiracy to commit mail and wire fraud. He appeared in U.S. District Court in his hometown of Houston before U.S. District Judge Keith P. Ellison. . . .

Under the plea deal accepted by the court, Stanley faces seven years in prison and a restitution payment of $10.8 million.

# # #


Former Execs Avoid Hard Time (September 3, 2008)

Two former telecommunications executives who admitted bribing employees of state-owned companies in Africa and concealing the payments have avoided prison in exchange for their cooperation in an ongoing FBI investigation.

The Justice Department said yesterday that Roger Michael Young, 48, of Washington, D.C., a former managing director of ITXC Corporation, has been sentenced to five years probation, including three months home confinement, three months in a community confinement center, and a $7,000 fine. He pleaded guilty in July 2007 to violating the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act and the Travel Act.

Former ITXC Vice President Steven J. Ott, 49, of Princeton, N.J., who also pleaded guilty, was sentenced in July this year to five years probation, including six months in a community confinement center and six months home confinement. He was fined $10,000.

A third defendant in the case, Yaw Osei Amoako, 55, of Hillsborough, N.J., pleaded guilty in September 2006. He was sentenced in August 2007 to 18 months in prison followed by two years of supervised release, and a $7,500 fine.

# # #

FCPA Guilty Plea For Bribing UK Official (May 9, 2008)

A former co-owner and executive of California-based Pacific Consolidated Industries (PCI) pleaded guilty yesterday to violating the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act. Martin Eric Self, 51, of Orange, California pleaded guilty to a two-count information charging him with violating the FCPA by paying more than $70,000 in bribes to a U.K. Ministry of Defence official. The bribes were intended to secure equipment contracts with the U.K. Royal Air Force. . . .

Self is scheduled to be sentenced in federal court on September 29, 2008. Although he faces a maximum sentence of five years in prison per count, his plea agreement contemplates a prison term of eight months, subject to the court's final determination at sentencing.

# # #


Former ITXC Execs Settle Civil FCPA Charges (May 8, 2008)

The Securities and Exchange Commission said that on April 18, 2008 it settled civil proceedings under the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act against Steven J. Ott, Roger Michael Young, and Yaw Osei Amoako. The SEC charged the former executives of ITXC Corp. with violating the antibribery and books and records provisions of the FCPA by bribing senior officials of government-owned telephone companies in Nigeria, Rwanda and Senegal, and concealing and falsely reporting the illegal payments.

In settling the SEC's civil enforcement action, Ott, Young and Amoako each consented to the entry of a final judgment that permanently enjoins them from violating Sections 30A and 13(b)(5) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, Rule 13b2-1 thereunder, and from aiding and abetting violations of Exchange Act Section 13(b)(2)(A) and, with respect to Ott and Young, violations of Exchange Act Section 13(b)(2)(B). Amoako also must pay $188,453 in disgorgement and prejudgment interest. He took kickbacks for some of the bribes he paid to the foreign officials.

# # #

Ex-World Bank Manager Sentenced For FCPA Offense (April 28, 2008)

The Justice Department has announced the April 22, 2008 sentencing of former World Bank employee, Ramendra Basu. The Indian national and U.S. permanent resident received 15 months in prison for conspiring to award World Bank contracts to consultants in exchange for kickbacks and for helping a contractor bribe a foreign official in violation of the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act. In addition to the 15- month prison term, Basu was sentenced to two years supervised release and 50 hours of community service. U.S. v. Basu, (Cr. No. 02-475) D.D.C., November 2002.

# # #


That's Entertainment? (December 19, 2007)

Wow! It's not often -- never, in fact -- that we can talk about the LA movie scene and tap Variety as one of our sources. But here it is. The Department of Justice just announced that a Los Angeles film executive and his wife were arrested on allegations of making corrupt payments to a Thai government official in order to obtain lucrative contracts to run an international film festival in Bangkok, in violation of the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act.

Gerald Green, 75, and his wife Patricia Green, 52, both of Los Angeles, were arrested on a criminal complaint filed on Dec. 7, 2007, in federal court in Los Angeles and unsealed today. The complaint alleges that the Greens conspired to pay more than $1.7 million in bribes for the benefit of a government official with the Tourism Authority of Thailand (TAT) in order to obtain the film festival contract and other contracts with the TAT worth more than $10 million.

[The Greens are awaiting trial.]

# # #


Schnitzer's Former Boss Settles FCPA Charges (December 14, 2007)

The former chairman and ceo of Schnitzer Steel Industries, Inc. resolved charges on December 13, 2007 brought by the Securities and Exchange Commission under the U.S. Foreign Corrupt Practices Act. Robert W. Philip, 60, of Portland, Oregon, will pay about $250,000 to settle charges that he violated the antibribery, books and records and internal controls provisions of the FCPA (Section 30A of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 [15 U.S.C. § 78dd-1], Section13(b)(2)(A) [15 U.S.C. § 78m(b)(2)(A)], and Section 13(b)(2)(B) [15 U.S.C. § 78m(b)(2)(B)]). He served as Schnitzer's president beginning in 1991, as its chief executive officer from 2002, and as chairman from 2004. He left the company in May 2005.

# # #


Another Former Willbros Executive Pleads Guilty (November 6, 2007)

Jason Edward Steph, 37, who once served as general manager of on-shore operations for a subsidiary of Willbros Group Inc., entered into a plea agreement with the U.S. Department of Justice on November 5, 2007. He pleaded guilty to conspiring to bribe officials of the government of Nigeria with more than $6 million -- in violation of the U.S. Foreign Corrupt Practices Act. Steph, of Sunset, Texas, was indicted on July 19, 2007. He now faces five years in prison and a $250,000 fine. . . .

Steph also said that in February and March of 2005 he, former Willbros executive Jim Bob Brown, and others arranged for the payment of approximately $1.8 million in cash to government officials in Nigeria. Brown pleaded guilty to a similar charge on Sept. 14, 2006. Steph and Brown are cooperating with the government’s ongoing investigation . . . .

[Steph and Brown are awaiting sentencing.]

# # #


Syncor's Founder Settles FCPA Charges With The SEC (October 1, 2007)

Monty Fu, the founder of Syncor International Corp., agreed with the Securities and Exchange Commission on September 27, 2007 to resolve U.S. Foreign Corrupt Practices Act charges by consenting to a permanent injunction against FCPA books-and-records violations and agreeing to pay a $75,000 civil penalty. Fu was Syncor's CEO from 1985 to 1989 and board chairman from 1985 to November 6, 2002, when he went on paid leave until he resigned in December 2002.

# # #


A.T. Kearney's Former India President Violated The FCPA (September 26, 2007)

The U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission announced on September 25, 2007 two settled enforcement actions based on violations of the books and records provisions of the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act. The actions involved the founder and former president of A.T. Kearney Ltd's India business, Chandramowli Srinivasan, and Kearney's former parent company, Electronic Data Systems Corp. . . .

For violating Sections 13(b)(5) and 30A of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, Srinivasan paid a civil penalty of $70,000.

.

Tuesday
May272008

Bribe Takers Get A Pass Under The FCPA

With $4-a-gallon gas, disappearing honey bees and a world-wide hops shortage, there's hardly time to worry about anything else. Like why bribe-taking foreign officials are never prosecuted under the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act. Fortunately, a reader with time to ponder such things asked us that question after we reported last month (here) the FCPA-related sentencing of former World Bank employee, Ramendra Basu.

Basu and his co-conspirator, Gautam Sengupta, another World Bank employee, pleaded guilty to helping a Swedish consultant make corrupt payments to government officials in Ethiopia and Kenya. At the time of their offense, Basu and Sengupta were working in the World Bank's headquarters in the District of Columbia, and both were U.S. permanent residents. Our reader wanted to know if Basu and Sengupta, who also took money from the Swedish consultants, could have been prosecuted not only as "domestic concerns" but also based on their status as employees of the World Bank, because "the Bank is a public international organization and its employees are therefore foreign officials under the FCPA." See 15 U.S.C. § 78dd-1(a)(f)(1) et seq.

Thanks to a definitive case from 1991, the answer is clear. Only bribe-payers can be prosecuted under the FCPA or under the general conspiracy statute of the United States. Bribe-takers are excluded. References in the FCPA to "foreign officials" are always talking about those who accept bribes, not those who pay them. That means foreign officials aren't targeted for prosecution.

The case that settled the issue is U.S. v. Castle, 925 F.2d 831 (5th Cir. 1991) (per curiam). In it, the Fifth Circuit adopted the Memorandum Opinion and Order from the trial court written by Judge Barefoot Sanders. The four original defendants in the case were charged in a one-count indictment with conspiring to violate the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act, 15 U.S.C. §§ 78dd-1, 78dd-2. Two defendants, Donald Castle and Darrell W.T. Lowry, moved to dismiss the indictment against them on the grounds that as Canadian government officials, they couldn't be convicted of accepting a $50,000 bribe to steer award of a bus-service contract by the Saskatchewan provincial government.

The two other defendants who paid the bribe didn't dispute that they could be prosecuted for conspiring to violate the FCPA. Nor was there any dispute that defendants Castle and Lowry, as Canadian government officials, could not be charged with a substantive violation of the FCPA, since the statute doesn't criminalize the receipt of a bribe by a foreign official. The issue, then, was whether the U.S. could prosecute Castle and Lowry under the general conspiracy statute, 18 U.S.C. § 371, for conspiring to violate the FCPA. "Put more simply," the district court said, "the question is whether foreign officials, whom the Government concedes it cannot prosecute under the FCPA itself, may be prosecuted under the general conspiracy statute for conspiring to violate the Act."

The trial court's memorandum opinion of June 4, 1990 was adopted by the appellate court. It traces the FCPA's legislative history relevant to whether foreign officials who take bribes can be prosecuted under the FCPA or the general conspiracy statute or both, and it sets out a comprehensive policy analysis behind Congress' intent to exclude foreign officials from prosecution. As far as we know, the 1991 case persuaded the Justice Department to end all further attempts to make conspiracy to violate the FCPA a chargeable offense against bribe-taking foreign officials.

Happily, Judge Barefoot Sanders' opinion lives up to its author's great moniker. It's a terrific read for FCPA lawyers, policy wonks, and policy-wonking lawyers. Here are just a few paragraphs from the 2,500-word decision:

"Yet the very individuals whose participation was required in every case--the foreign officials accepting the bribe--were excluded from prosecution for the substantive offense. Given that Congress included virtually every possible person connected to the payments except foreign officials, it is only logical to conclude that Congress affirmatively chose to exempt this small class of persons from prosecution.

"Most likely Congress made this choice because U.S. businesses were perceived to be the aggressors, and the efforts expended in resolving the diplomatic, jurisdictional, and enforcement difficulties that would arise upon the prosecution of foreign officials was not worth the minimal deterrent value of such prosecutions. Further minimizing the deterrent value of a U.S. prosecution was the fact that many foreign nations already prohibited the receipt of a bribe by an official. See S.Rep. No. 114 at 4, 1977 U.S.Code Cong. & Admin.News at 4101 (testimony of Treasury Secretary Blumenthal that in many nations such payments are illegal). In fact, whenever a nation permitted such payments, Congress allowed them as well. See 15 U.S.C. Sec. 78dd-2(c)(1).

"Based upon the language of the statute and the legislative history, this Court finds in the FCPA what the Supreme Court in [Gebardi v. United States, 287 U.S. 112, 53 S.Ct. 35, 77 L.Ed. 206 (1932)] found in the Mann Act: an affirmative legislative policy to leave unpunished a well-defined group of persons who were necessary parties to the acts constituting a violation of the substantive law. The Government has presented no reason why the prosecution of Defendants Castle and Lowry should go forward in the face of the congressional intent not to prosecute foreign officials. If anything, the facts of this case support Congress' decision to forego such prosecutions since foreign nations could and should prosecute their own officials for accepting bribes. Under the revised statutes of Canada the receipt of bribes by officials is a crime, with a prison term not to exceed five years, see Criminal Code, R.S.C. c. C-46, s.121 (pp. 81-84) (1985), and the Royal Canadian Mounted Police have been actively investigating the case, apparently even before any arrests by U.S. officials. Defendant Castle's and Lowry's Supplemental Memorandum In Support of Motion to Dismiss, filed May 14, 1990, at 10. In fact, the Canadian police have informed Defendant Castle's counsel that charges will likely be brought against Defendants Castle and Lowry in Canada. Id. at 10 & nn. 3-4. Thus, prosecution and punishment will be accomplished by the government which most directly suffered the abuses allegedly perpetrated by its own officials, and there is no need to contravene Congress' desire to avoid such prosecutions by the United States."

Download U.S. v. Castle, 925 F.2d 831 (5th Cir. 1991) (per curiam) here.
.

Sunday
Apr272008

Ex-World Bank Manager Sentenced For FCPA Offense

The Justice Department has announced the April 22, 2008 sentencing of former World Bank employee, Ramendra Basu. The Indian national and U.S. permanent resident received 15 months in prison for conspiring to award World Bank contracts to consultants in exchange for kickbacks and for helping a contractor bribe a foreign official in violation of the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act. In addition to the 15- month prison term, Basu was sentenced to two years supervised release and 50 hours of community service. U.S. v. Basu, (Cr. No. 02-475) D.D.C., November 2002.

Basu pleaded guilty on Dec. 17, 2002 to conspiring to commit wire fraud in violation of 18 U.S.C. §371 and to violating the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act, 15 U.S.C. §78dd-3. Under his 2002 plea agreement he cooperated with U.S. authorities. In 2006, however, he moved unsuccessfully to withdraw his guilty plea. During his cooperation, he admitted that between 1997 and 2000, as a World Bank Trust Funds Manager, he conspired with a Swedish consultant and others to steer World Bank contracts in Ethiopia and Kenya to certain Swedish companies in exchange for kickbacks amounting to $127,000. He also helped the Swedish consultants bribe a Kenyan government official by, among other things, arranging for $50,000 to be wire transferred to an account outside the United States for the benefit of the Kenyan official.

In September 1997, Basu left his job at the World Bank and joined the Swedish consulting firm. He also arranged jobs there for his father, brother-in-law, and a close friend. He took a commission of ten percent of the value of all contracts he worked on for the Swedish consultant. In December 1997, Basu returned to the World Bank but continued to receive commissions from the Swedish consultant. By January 1998, the consultant had been awarded three contracts by Basu's co-conspirator, Gautam Sengupta, a World Bank Task Manager.

Sengupta, also an Indian national and U.S. permanent resident, pleaded guilty in February 2002 to the same charges as Basu. He was sentenced in February 2006 to two months in prison and fined $6,000. U.S. v. Sengupta, (Cr. No. 02-40) D.D.C., January 2002. Separately, the Swedish consultants were prosecuted and convicted of bribery by a court in Sweden. In February 2004, they were sentenced to 18 months and 12 months in prison respectively .

The Sengupta and Basu cases were the first criminal referrals to national prosecutors from the World Bank (or apparently from any international financial institution). The plea agreements with the DOJ required the defendants to cooperate with the World Bank's investigation and with Swedish and Kenyan authorities, as well as the DOJ. The plea agreements said: The defendant agrees to disclose completely and truthfully all information regarding his activities and those of others in all matters about which he has knowledge or hereafter acquires knowledge concerning any matter about which the United States, The World Bank, or the Government[s] of Sweden [or Kenya] may inquire. Defendant agrees to accompany agents of the United States, The World Bank, or the Government[s] of Sweden [or Kenya] to any location in order to accomplish that purpose ... Defendant agrees to answer all questions completely and truthfully and must not withhold any information.

Despite his initial cooperation with prosecutors, Basu tried four years later in 2006 to withdraw his guilty plea. The court wouldn't allow it. We don't know why he wanted to withdraw his plea -- after he had already provided evidence about the corruption -- or if his change of heart influenced the court's decision in his sentencing.

View the DOJ's April 25, 2008 news release here.